通勤學英語
每日英語跟讀 Ep.896: 特斯拉市值超越豐田、埃克森美孚

每日英語跟讀 Ep.896: 特斯拉市值超越豐田、埃克森美孚

July 15, 2020

每日英語跟讀 Ep.896: Tesla overtakes Toyota and Exxon’s market value in symbolic shifts

Last Wednesday, Tesla Inc. displaced Toyota Motor Corp. as the world’s most valuable automaker, underscoring investor enthusiasm for a company trying to transform an industry that has relied on internal combustion engines for more than 130 years.

特斯拉上週三取代豐田汽車,成為全球市值最高的汽車製造商,凸顯投資人對一家嘗試為倚賴內燃機超過一百三十年之汽車工業帶來轉型的公司非常有興趣。

Tesla Inc.’s market value also surpassed Exxon Mobil Corp.’s last Tuesday in a sign that investors are increasingly betting on a global energy transition away from fossil fuels.

特斯拉的市值在上週二也已超過石油巨擘埃克森美孚,此跡象顯示有越來越多投資人押注在淘汰化石燃料的全球能源轉型。

Exxon is the world’s second biggest energy company after Saudi state-controlled oil giant Aramco went public late last year.

埃克森美孚是世界第二大能源公司,僅次於去年底上市的沙烏地阿拉伯國有石油巨頭阿美公司。

Shares of Tesla, which have more than doubled since the start of the year, climbed as much as 3.5 percent in intraday trading last Wednesday, giving it a market capitalization of US$207.2 billion, surpassing Toyota’s US$201.9 billion.

自今年初以來,特斯拉的股價已翻漲了一倍多。在上週三的盤中交易,特斯拉的股價上漲了三點五個百分點,使其市值達到兩千零七十二億美元,超越了豐田的兩千零十九億美元。

Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk has ignored or broken many of the established auto industry’s rules and norms in the 10 years since he took Tesla public, selling cars online and assembling vehicles in high-cost California. But while his company’s value has soared, there remains a gulf in the scale of his company and the world’s biggest car manufacturers.

汽車業已建立的許多規則與常態,在特斯拉上市以來的十年間,都被執行長伊隆‧馬斯克置若罔顧或打破了。馬斯克在網路上賣車,並在高成本的美國加州組裝車輛。他的公司雖然市值飛漲,但特斯拉之規模與全球最大的一些汽車製造商相比,仍有很大的落差。

Tesla produced 103,000 vehicles in the first quarter, or about 4 percent of the almost 2.4 million made by Toyota, which built its brand on affordability and reliability backed by innovations in large-scale manufacturing.

特斯拉在第一季生產了十萬零三千輛車,約為豐田近兩百四十萬輛之生產量的百分之四。豐田的汽車以民眾買得起、性能可靠而著名,其創新技術可被大量製造。

Tesla became the world’s second most valuable automaker in January, when it surpassed Volkswagen AG. It is now worth more than twice the German giant.

特斯拉在一月份超越大眾汽車,成為市值全球第二之汽車製造商。現在特斯拉的市值是這家德國汽車巨頭的兩倍多。

After pioneering gas-electric vehicles with the Prius hybrid, Toyota was late to shift to fully electric autos and has wagered heavily on hydrogen fuel cells. The company is now making a series of high-profile investments in electric vehicles (EVs) and self-driving cars. The manufacturer has forecast an 80 percent plunge in profit this year due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and expects it could take until the first half of next year before the auto market recovers to pre-pandemic levels.

豐田以Prius混合動力汽車開創了油電複合動力車之先河,卻很慢才轉向純電動車,它先前投入大量資源押注的是氫燃料電池。豐田目前正對電動車及自動駕駛汽車進行一系列引人注目的投資。由於武漢肺炎(新冠病毒病,COVID-19)的影響,豐田預測今年其營收將大減百分之八十,並預計車市要到明年上半年才能夠恢復到疫情爆發前之水準。

The market for electric vehicles is forecast to increase to 10 percent of global passenger vehicle sales by 2025, 28 percent in 2030 and 58 percent by 2040, according to a May 19 report by BloombergNEF.

彭博新能源財經在五月十九日的報告中預測,到了二○二五年,電動車之市場將擴大到佔全球乘用車市場的百分之十,到二○三○年將佔百分之二十八,到了二○四○年,將達到百分之五十八。

Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/07/07/2003739463

 
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每日英語跟讀 Ep.895: 台灣拉麵披薩珍奶披薩吸睛

每日英語跟讀 Ep.895: 台灣拉麵披薩珍奶披薩吸睛

July 14, 2020

每日英語跟讀 Ep.895: Taiwan’s culinary innovations cause a stir in the world of pizza

Forget your pepperoni or other pizza toppings: Pizza Hut Taiwan has teamed up with Menya Musashi, a popular Japanese ramen restaurant chain, to serve up the world’s first ramen pizza, and it has attracted global interest after a CNN report about the new mashup was published on the front-page of its Japanese version.

忘掉你愛的臘腸或其它配料吧。台灣必勝客近日與熱門日本拉麵連鎖店麵屋武藏合作,共同推出全球首創的「拉麵披薩」!美國有線電視新聞網(CNN)對此混搭的相關報導,還衝上該媒體日本版網站首頁,並進而引發全球關注。

The new pizza has the toppings of a Japanese-style barbecue pork ramen — complete with thick noodles, barbecue pork slices, fresh chilies and white sesame, as well as a half-boiled egg sitting in the middle. It is also garnished with green onions and bamboo shoots on the side.

基本上,這款新口味披薩上有著日式叉燒拉麵的配料——包括粗麵條、叉燒肉片、一些辣椒末和白芝麻,中間還擺著一顆半熟的糖心蛋,旁邊則裝飾著一些青蔥及筍片。

Pizza Hut Taiwan told CNN that its creative pizzas are just a way to introduce some fun into the customer experience. “Taiwanese consumers live a high-pressure life with long working hours and a high cost of living. The food scene has become an exciting and creative escape,” said Lily Chou, the company’s marketing director, adding that it is definitely the first ramen to be served as a slice.

台灣必勝客告訴CNN,它的各種創意披薩其實是想為顧客們帶來一些樂趣。行銷總監周佳麗指出︰「台灣消費者過著高工時、高生活成本的高壓生活,而令人興奮的創意美食已成為逃離壓力的出口,」她還說這絕對是第一款用手吃的拉麵。

The Taiwanese are known for their creativity in making special food and drinks: some of their previous mashups have included matcha green tea pizza, durian pizza, stinky tofu pizza, and even bubble tea pizza. Also known as “boba tea” or “pearl milk tea,” the famous tea of Taiwanese origin mixed with milk and small tapioca balls has become a global sensation in recent years. Domino’s Taiwan even caused a pizza war by launching its “bubble tea pizza” late last year.

台灣人向來以製作新奇飲食的創造力而聞名,之前推出的混搭還包括抹茶披薩、榴槤披薩、臭豆腐披薩,甚至珍珠奶茶披薩等。珍奶在英文中又被稱作波霸奶茶或泡沫奶茶,這種知名茶飲一般混合著牛奶,及樹薯粉製成的粉圓,近年逐漸在世界各地造成轟動。台灣達美樂去年底就因為推出黑糖珍珠披薩,而掀起一場披薩大戰。

“It might be the ultimate meeting of eastern and western cuisine — Taiwan’s famous bubble tea as a topping on a Domino’s pizza,” CNN reported. Domino’s Taiwan originally planned to offer the dessert pizza covered in brown sugar pearls, cheese and honey for a month, but the popularity of the bubble tea pizza secured its spot on the regular menu, and rivals have been trying to join this trend. “In Taiwan everyone loves the texture ‘Q,’ which means chewy or bouncy in the way boba is, and this pizza was indeed very ‘Q,’” Lev Nachman, a US PhD candidate conducting research in Taiwan, told CNN.

CNN稍早報導說︰「台灣著名的珍奶化身達美樂披薩配料——這或許是東方和西方飲食的終極交會。」最初台灣達美樂僅計劃推出這款覆蓋著黑糖珍珠、起司、蜂蜜的甜點披薩一個月,不過因產品大受歡迎,最後被加入正式菜單,其它對手亦開始追逐這股風潮。

在台灣做研究的美籍博士候選人南樂對CNN說:「在台灣,每個人都愛『Q』、也就是有嚼勁、會彈牙的口感,就像珍珠粉圓,而這款珍奶披薩口感的確很『Q』。」

Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/07/06/2003739406

 
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每日英語跟讀 Ep.894: About Japan - 日本棒球賽跳舞機器人取代球迷與發電消毒衣

每日英語跟讀 Ep.894: About Japan - 日本棒球賽跳舞機器人取代球迷與發電消毒衣

July 13, 2020

每日英語跟讀 Ep.894: About Japan - Dancing robots replace fans at Japanese baseball game

With their stadium devoid of fans due to coronavirus restrictions, Japanese baseball team Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks have come up with an imaginative replacement:dancing robots.

隨著體育場因冠狀病毒限制而少了球迷,日本棒球隊「福岡軟銀鷹」想出了一個富含想像力的替代方案:跳舞機器人。

Before their most recent Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) game against Rakuten Eagles on Tuesday, over 20 robots danced to the team’s fight song on a podium in the otherwise empty stand.

在日職最近一場週二對戰「東北樂天金鷲」的賽事前,超過20個機器人在原本應是空蕩蕩的看台間之講台上,隨著自家隊伍的戰歌起舞。

Two different robots, including SoftBank’s humaniod robot ’Pepper’ and others on four legs like a dog, stamped and shimmied in a choreographed dance that is usually performed by the Hawks’ fans before games in the 40,000 capacity Fukuoka Dome.

2種不同的機器人,包括軟銀類人的機器人「胡椒」,還有另一些像狗有4隻腳的機器人,在一支精心編排的舞蹈中跺地擺動,那通常由軟銀鷹球迷於賽事開始前在可容納4萬人的福岡巨蛋中表演。

Some of the robots wore Hawks caps and waved flags supporting the team.

有些機器人戴著軟銀鷹鴨舌帽,並揮舞旗幟來支持自家隊伍。

Boosted by the supportive robots, the Hawks won 4-3 as they look to defend their 2019 NPB title.

在給予支持的機器人促捧下,軟銀鷹以4比3獲勝,期盼衛冕2019年日本棒球機構的冠軍。

Next Article:

Shocker! Japan firms’ electrifying fabric zaps bacteria 電一下!日本公司的發電織物消滅細菌

It’s a shocking idea:a fabric that can produce small amounts of electricity powered by movement, allowing your clothing to zap microbes and bacteria as you go about your day.

這是一個「電人」的想法:一種能利用活動產生小量電流的布料,讓你的衣服隨著你日常活動,消滅微生物和細菌。

A pair of Japanese firms say that’s exactly what their new product can do, and are touting it for everything from curbing body odour to offering the ideal material for protective gear like face masks.

兩家日本公司說,這正是他們新產品的功能,並且宣稱,從抑制體臭到適合當作像口罩等防護裝備的理想材質,該產品都做得到。

The fabric jointly developed by electronics company Murata Manufacturing and Teijin Frontier, dubbed PIECLEX, generates power from the expansion and contraction of the material itself, including when worn by someone moving around.

這種織物由「村田製作所」以及「帝人富瑞特公司」共同開發,取名為PIECLEX,從穿著者活動時織物的伸縮產生電力。

The low voltages aren’t strong enough to be felt by the wearer, but they effectively stop bacteria and viruses from multiplying inside the fabric, the companies said.

這兩家公司說,產生的電量低,不夠強到會讓穿著者感覺到,但是能有效遏止細菌、病毒在織物內增生。

Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1384984 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1385624

 
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文法跟讀 In-Tense Ep.053: Adjectives 形容詞

文法跟讀 In-Tense Ep.053: Adjectives 形容詞

July 12, 2020

Welcome to 15mins.today the home of English Shadowing. I'm your host Gavin, and this is InTense Episode 53. Well guys we finished with pronouns. Now nouns and their undercover noun partners, pronouns are things, and so we use them to talk about everything in every sentence you have to have basically a noun. Now it would be awesome if it was as simple as that, but of course now we have to talk about the words that describe these nouns and pronouns and those are called adjectives. So, these are words that compliment a noun or a pronoun, so when we talk about the man, but we can say more about him “The man is strong.” That strong describes the man, the dog “The filthy dog.” filthy describes what the dog looks like, or “Thebeautiful dog. Now of course if we change the dog to it you could say, “It is beautiful.”, same as “The dog is beautiful.” So, pronouns and nouns, when they get described by other words those are called adjectives and they do certain jobs, they tell us the following things like:

Drill Sentences:

Is Jane a beautiful woman? Yes, Jane is a beautiful woman.

Is Jane a beautiful woman? No, Jane is not a beautiful woman.

 

Is John a handsome man? Yes, John is a handsome man.

Is John a handsome man? No, John is not a handsome man.

 

Is the car expensive? Yes, it is expensive.

Is the car expensive? No, it is not expensive.

 

Is the kitten cute? Yes, the kitten is cute.

Is the kitten cute? No, the kitten is not cute.

 

Is Angela efficient? Yes, she is efficient.

Is Angela efficient? No, she is not efficient.

 

Is Peter rich? Yes, he is rich.

Is Peter rich? No, he is not rich.

 

Did Andrew and Robert buy six books? Yes, they bought six books.

Did Andrew and Robert buy six books? No, they did not buy six books.

 

Do you eat much sugar? Yes, I eat much sugar.

Do you eat much sugar? No, I do not eat much sugar.

 

Will Ethan buy a gold ring? Yes, he will buy a gold ring.

Will Ethan buy a gold ring? No, he will not buy a gold ring.

 

Did, Lucy eat those chocolates? Yes, she ate those chocolates.

Did Lucy eat those chocolates? No, she did not eat those chocolates.

 

Well, there you go guys, a quick introduction into adjectives, and our first kind which are common adjectives. Now, if you paid attention or noticed in the first few questions I made a small error, when I did the answers, I did not change the nouns to pronouns, I did not change the names of the people to he, she, it. But I caught myself after a couple of questions and I corrected that, so I hope that helps out. Again, I would stress, as long as you know it is an adjective you're dealing with, you don't really need to stress about what kind of adjective, just as long as you can recognize them. Great, I hope this is helpful and I'll catch you in the next episode, bye, bye!

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精選詞彙播客 Vocab Ep.063: Junk food messing with your brain and squatting is good for you 垃圾食物與你的蹲姿

精選詞彙播客 Vocab Ep.063: Junk food messing with your brain and squatting is good for you 垃圾食物與你的蹲姿

July 11, 2020

Summary:

The first article discusses how junk food messes with our brain chemistry, making us stupid and not feeling full. Thus triggering a desire for more junk food.

The second article found that if you need to sit all day, kneeling or squatting is much healthier for people, than sitting on a chair.

Vocabulary and Sample Sentences:

Undermine v.: make something weaker or less effective

  1. Did the mistake undermine her confidence?
  2. Would you fire someone who undermines your authority?

Amiss adj + adv.: not as it should be

  1. Is there something amiss with your sleep patterns?
  2. Is there something amiss with the climate?

Sedentary adj.: a lot of time sitting

  1. Are you sedentary on the weekends?
  2. Is a standing desk a great alternative to a sedentary lifestyle at work?
 
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每日英語跟讀 Ep.893: 眾泰汽車踢到鐵板

每日英語跟讀 Ep.893: 眾泰汽車踢到鐵板

July 10, 2020

每日英語跟讀 Ep.893: Wheels falling off China’s ‘deep fake’ car manufacturer

Chinese automobile manufacturer Zotye Auto is a household name in China. The company is famous for manufacturing copies of car models by luxury international brands including Audi, Porsche and Lamborghini. After a long delay, on June 22, Zotye Auto finally released its 2019 year end financial results. The report revealed that last year, the automaker suffered losses of 11.2 billion yuan (approximately NT$46.6 billion), or an average of 30 million yuan per day. The company’s market value also shrank from 30 billion yuan to a mere 3.6 billion yuan. Even worse, because the company is unable to guarantee the authenticity, accuracy and completeness of its financial report, Zotye Auto has been issued with a “risk of delisting warning” by Shenzhen Stock Exchange.

以模仿奧迪、保時捷、蘭寶堅尼等高級進口車,在中國家喻戶曉的車商眾泰汽車,六月二十二日終於發布二○一九年財報,顯示全年慘虧一百十二億元人民幣(以下同),約新台幣四百六十六億,相當於每天平均虧損三千萬,市值也由逾三百億縮水至僅剩三十六億元;更慘的是,該公司因為無法保證年報的真實性、準確性和完整性,已被深圳證券交易所實施「退市風險警示」。

Seemingly without a care for the outside world, Zotye Auto has been audaciously building slavish copies of imported luxury car models. The company became a household name in China after producing facsimile versions of the Audi Q3 (Zotye SR7), Porsche Macan (Zotye SR9) and Lamborghini Urus (Zotye Concept S). Due to Zotye Auto’s uncanny ability to produce lookalike cars, there is a joke currently doing the rounds in China: “If you want to get behind the wheel of a Lamborghini, pay a visit to Zotye Auto.”

眾泰汽車因為不顧外界觀瞻,大膽模仿進口名車,而在中國家喻戶曉,該公司推出的眾泰SR7模仿奧迪Q3,眾泰SR9模仿保時捷Macan ,眾泰Concept S模仿蘭寶堅尼Urus。由於模仿能力出眾,中國坊間甚至流傳著一句調侃話:「這輩子能不能開蘭寶堅尼,就看眾泰了!」

However, having relied on imitating the work of others, the company lacks home-grown innovation, while the quality of its vehicles has not kept pace with the sophistication of its copycat designs. Annual sales have been steadily falling too: in 2016, the company sold 330,000 vehicles. This fell to 310,000 in 2017 and only 230,000 in 2018. Zotye Auto initially set a sales target of 480,000 vehicles per year, yet in 2018 it failed to reach even half that figure. Last year, sales declined at an even steeper rate with the company only managing to shift 116,600 vehicles.

但靠著山寨別人,缺乏自主創新,且品質也未同步提升的營運模式畢竟無法持久。眾泰汽車二○一六年、二○一七年的年銷量還分別有三十三萬輛、三十一萬輛,但此後每況愈下,二○一八年僅剩二十三萬輛,為四十八萬輛的目標的一半不到,二○一九年進一步跌至十一點六六萬輛。

To make matters even worse, Zotye Auto chief executive Lou Guohai has stated that he cannot guarantee the authenticity, accuracy and completeness of his company’s year end financial report, citing various reasons including uncertainty over the company’s ability to continue operating, multiple lawsuits and outstanding obligations.

雪上加霜的是,眾泰汽車董事婁國海表示,無法保證該公司年報內容的真實性、準確性和完整性,理由包括:公司的持續經營能力存在較大不確定性,公司面臨眾多訴訟及擔保事項等。

Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/07/01/2003739125

 
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每日英語跟讀 Ep.892: 洋蔥與部分食材一起吃恐釀結石?

每日英語跟讀 Ep.892: 洋蔥與部分食材一起吃恐釀結石?

July 9, 2020

每日英語跟讀 Ep.892: FactCheck Center: Onions eaten with certain foods causing kidney stones rumors are false

Onions, with their sweet aroma, are a popular cooking ingredient, used in both Western and Eastern cuisines. Today, however, information is appearing online suggesting that onions should not be eaten with fish, shrimp, seaweed or honey, as these combinations cause kidney stones. But is there any truth to this? The Taiwan FactCheck Center asked dieticians and experts and confirmed that this information was false. Onion loving foodies everywhere can breathe a sigh of relief.

帶著甜味的洋蔥是熱門食材之一,足跡遍佈東西方料理界,但如今,網路上竟有「洋蔥不能和魚、蝦、海帶、蜂蜜一起吃」否則會產生腎結石的訊息,究竟是真是假?台灣事實查核中心求證營養師及專家,證實該消息為錯誤訊息,熱愛洋蔥的饕客大可放心。

According to information on certain social media platforms, onions should not be eaten together with fish, as the fish has a high protein content, and the oxalic acid in the onion will break down and destroy the protein in the fish and make it form a precipitate that is not easily absorbed by the human body. The rumor that onions should not be eaten with shrimp suggests that the calcium oxalate formed by the shrimp produces kidney stones, while the problem with eating onions with seaweed apparently comes from the large amounts of iodine and calcium found in the seaweed, which can easily form stones due to the oxalic acid in the onions. Finally, there are rumors saying that eating onions with honey can be bad for the eyes, and can lead to impaired vision or blindness.

社群平台流傳訊息稱,「哪些食物不能和洋蔥一起吃?洋蔥和魚不能一起吃,魚中含有豐富的蛋白質,洋蔥和魚同吃,洋蔥裡的草酸會分解、破壞魚中豐富的蛋白質,使之沉澱,不容易被人體消化吸收。洋蔥和蝦;洋蔥和蝦不能一起吃,蝦形成草酸鈣產生結石。洋蔥和海帶;洋蔥和海帶不能一起吃,海帶裡邊含有豐富的碘和鈣,洋蔥含有草酸,洋蔥和海帶一起吃容易形成結石。洋蔥和蜂蜜;洋蔥和蜂蜜不能一起吃,一起吃對眼睛不好,會引起眼睛的不適,嚴重的還會導致眼睛失明」。經查核中心求證營養領域專家,證實此為錯誤訊息。

After consulting dieticians and experts, the FactCheck center was able to disprove these rumors. According to Lee Pei-ni, director of the Department of Nutrition at Taipei Hospital, if one consumes large amounts of food containing oxalic acid, the body’s ability to absorb protein can be impaired. Onions, however, are not rich in oxalic acid, and people do not normally consume large amounts of onions in their meals (say, eight onions every meal continuously for a whole month), and therefore the situation indicated in the rumors is unlikely to happen.

針對蛋白質部分,臺北醫院營養科主任李佩霓指出,若攝取大量含草酸食物,食物中的草酸會干擾蛋白質的吸收,但洋蔥為低草酸食物,正常飲食狀況下並不會攝取大量洋蔥(如,一餐吃八顆洋蔥、連吃一個月等),因此不會有傳言所指的狀況。

So, what about the rumor saying that eating onions together with shrimps or seaweed will lead to the formation of calcium oxalate, and thus to the formation of kidney stones? According to Lee, there are many factors contributing to the formation of stones, and a person in a normal state of health will not develop kidney stones from eating specific types of food. The old wives’ tale that one should not eat spinach with tofu, for example, carries little water.

傳言指出「洋蔥和蝦、海帶一起吃會形成草酸鈣,成為結石」,是否屬實?李佩霓解釋,影響結石形成的因素很多,一般健康狀態的人不會因為吃了特定食物就引起結石,如老謠言「菠菜不能和豆腐同時食用」,此為錯誤觀念。

Lee adds that, even though stones have a lot of calcium in them, that doesn’t mean that eating foods containing calcium and oxalic acid will be a major contributing factor to the formation of stones, which is more likely the result of the individual’s constitution or hereditary factors. It is sufficient for normally healthy people to maintain a balanced diet and to make sure they are getting enough food.

李佩霓也補充正確觀念指出,結石成分中有許多鈣,但是含鈣與含草酸的食物一起食用,並不是造成結石生成的主因,結石有可能是個人體質或遺傳等原因造成;建議一般人把握均衡飲食、足量飲水的兩大原則即可。

On the rumor that onions should not be eaten together with honey, or it could be bad for the eyes and even possibly lead to a loss of eyesight, Lee clarified that onions and honey are both natural foods and that, if eaten as part of a balanced diet, there will be no risk of impaired vision. One thing to bear in mind, however, is that raw onions can be relatively spicy and cause abdominal bloating, and so she recommends that people with relatively sensitive stomachs should eat them sparingly, so that it doesn’t place an overly large burden on the body.

又針對傳言「洋蔥和蜂蜜不能一起吃」否則對眼睛不好、可能釀失明部分,李佩霓澄清,洋蔥和蜂蜜各自都是天然的食物,在均衡飲食的狀況下,不會有失明的風險。唯一要留意的是,洋蔥生食較為辛辣,且容易造成腹部脹氣,建議腸胃較敏感者少量攝取,才不致造成身體過大的負擔。

Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/06/29/2003739005

 
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每日英語跟讀 Ep.891: 科學家發現巨大馬雅建築

每日英語跟讀 Ep.891: 科學家發現巨大馬雅建築

July 8, 2020

每日英語跟讀 Ep.891: Oldest and largest ancient Maya structure found in Mexico

Scientists using an aerial remote-sensing method have discovered the largest and oldest-known structure built by the ancient Maya civilization — a colossal rectangular elevated platform built between 1,000 and 800 BC in Mexico’s Tabasco state.

科學家日前利用空中遙測技術,發現馬雅古文明迄今所知最大規模、最古老的建築結構。該遺址是一座巨大的長方形高台,位在墨西哥的塔巴斯戈州,建造於西元前一千年到前八百年間。

The structure, unlike the soaring Maya pyramids at cities like Tikal in Guatemala and Palenque in Mexico erected some 1,500 years later, was not built of stone but rather of clay and earth, and likely was used for mass rituals, researchers said on June 3.

研究人員六月三日表示,該遺址迥異於馬雅文明一千五百多年後於瓜地馬拉的提卡爾和墨西哥的帕倫克等城市建造的高聳金字塔,並非由巨石堆砌而成,而是用黏土和泥土建成,可能是用來舉行大型祭祀活動。

Located at a site called Aguada Fenix near the Guatemalan border, the structure measured nearly 400m wide and 1,400m long and stood 10m to 15m high. In total volume, it exceeded ancient Egypt’s Great Pyramid of Giza built 1,500 years earlier.

此建築座落於一處稱為「阿瓜達芬尼克斯」的遺址,靠近瓜地馬拉的邊界,長一千四百公尺、寬幾乎達四百公尺,高度約為十到十五公尺。從總體積來看,此結構超過古埃及早一千五百年(即西元前兩千五百年)建造的吉薩大金字塔。

There were no signs of sculptures depicting high-status individuals, suggesting Maya culture at this early stage was more communal and only later developed social inequality and a hierarchical society led by royalty, the researchers said. “Because it is so large horizontally, if you walk on it, it just looks like natural landscape,” said University of Arizona archaeologist Takeshi Inomata, who led the research published in the journal Nature. “But its form comes out nicely in lidar.”

研究人員指出,這處遺址並未出現刻畫身居高位的個人雕塑,意味著馬雅文化在這個早期階段較為偏向「共治」,直到稍晚才發展出社會不平等的現象,以及由王室主導的階級制社會。美國亞利桑那大學的考古學家豬俁健是研究主持人,他表示:「因為這個結構和地面平行,規模又如此巨大,當人走在上面時,感覺就像是走在自然形成的地理景觀上。」豬俁健進一步補充說:「不過,透過光學雷達,遺址的結構就清楚地展現出來。」這份研究日前刊登於《自然》期刊。

Lidar, short for Light Detection and Ranging, is a remote-sensing technique that employs a pulsed laser and other data obtained flying over a site to generate three-dimensional information about the shape of surface characteristics. Nine large causeways and a series of reservoirs were linked to the structure. Some parts of the rural Aguada Fenix site today are covered with cattle ranches. Other parts are wooded.

「光達」是「光線檢測與測距」的簡稱,是一種運用脈衝雷射的遙測技術,配合受測地點上空獲得的其它資料,產生地貌特徵的3D資訊。這次發現的大型結構,與九條大型堤道和一系列蓄水設施相連。地處鄉間的阿瓜達芬尼克斯遺址,今日部分地區被養牛的牧場覆蓋,其它部分則被繁茂的樹林遮蔽。

“It is probable that many people from surrounding areas gathered for special occasions, possibly tied to calendrical cycles,” Inomata said. “The rituals probably involved processions along the causeways and within the rectangular plaza. The people also deposited symbolic objects such as jade axes in the center of the plateau.”

豬俁健表示:「許多來自周圍地區的人,可能會在特殊場合在此聚會,或許和曆法的週期有關。」他進一步推測:「這些儀式可能包括沿著堤道、在矩形廣場內列隊遊行。這些人也會在高台中央放置玉斧這類具有象徵性的物品。」

Source article: https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2020/06/21/2003738560

 
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每日英語跟讀 Ep.890: 顧客湧向外送平台 餐廳添憂

每日英語跟讀 Ep.890: 顧客湧向外送平台 餐廳添憂

July 7, 2020

每日英語跟讀 Ep.890: As Diners Flock to Delivery Apps, Restaurants Fear for Their Future

Before the coronavirus lockdowns, Matt Majesky did not take much notice of the fees that Grubhub and Uber Eats charged him every time they processed an order for his restaurant, Pierogi Mountain.

在新冠病毒導致全面封鎖之前,麥特‧馬耶斯基對於Grubhub與優步每次為他「波蘭餃子山」餐廳處理訂單時收取多少費用,並沒有太注意。

But once the lockdowns began, the apps became essentially the only source of business for the barroom restaurant he ran with a partner, Charlie Greene, in Columbus, Ohio. That was when the fees to the delivery companies turned into the restaurant’s single largest cost — more than what it paid for food or labor.

但在封鎖開始後,對於他跟查理‧葛林在俄亥俄州哥倫布市共同經營的這家酒吧餐廳而言,這些應用程式實質上成了生意唯一的來源。就在那時,付給外送公司的費用成為餐廳最大單一成本,高過食材或人事的花費。

Pierogi Mountain’s primary delivery company, Grubhub, took more than 40% from the average order, Majesky’s Grubhub statements show. That flipped his restaurant from almost breaking even to plunging deeply into the red. In late April, Pierogi Mountain shut down.

馬耶斯基的Grubhub報表顯示,波蘭餃子山主要外送公司Grubhub從一般訂單抽成超過40%,這讓他的餐廳從幾乎損益兩平變為嚴重虧損。4月底時,波蘭餃子山宣告停業。

“You have no choice but to sign up, but there is no negotiating,” Majesky, who has applied for unemployment, said of the delivery apps. “It almost turns into a hostage situation.”

已申請失業救濟的馬耶斯基談到這些外送應用程式時說:「你別無選擇只能簽約加入,卻毫無談判餘地,幾乎成了人質。」

Even as apps like Grubhub have cast themselves as economic saviors for restaurants in the pandemic, their fees have become an increasing source of difficulty for the establishments. From Chicago; Pittsburgh; and Tampa, Florida, to Boise, Idaho; Albuquerque, New Mexico; and Richardson, Texas, restaurant owners have taken to social media to express their unhappiness. Some restaurants have shut down, while others have cut off the apps and are looking for other ways to take orders.

儘管Grubhub之類應用程式自命為這場全球大疾情下餐廳的經濟救星,它們的收費卻日益成為這些餐廳經營困難的一個源頭。從芝加哥、匹茲堡與佛州坦帕,再到愛達荷州波伊西、新墨西哥州阿爾伯克基跟德州理查森。餐廳店主們在社交媒體上表達他們的不滿。有些餐廳已經停業,另一些餐廳則關閉應用程序,正另謀接單之道。

Complaints about the fees that the apps charge to both restaurants and consumers are long-standing, but the issue has become heightened as many restaurants have shut down in-room dining. Even as they begin reopening, delivery is likely to remain a bigger part of their business than before the pandemic.

這些應用程式向餐廳和消費者的收費招致抱怨已久,但隨著許多餐廳停止內用,這個問題也變得更加尖銳。儘管他們開始重新營業,跟疫情爆發前相比,外送在他們生意中所占比率很可能更大。

The gap between the success of the apps and the pain of the restaurants is striking. Spending at restaurants in recent weeks dropped about 35% from a year earlier, while revenue for the delivery services rose about 140%, according to data from M Science, a firm that analyzes transaction data.

應用程式的成功與餐廳的痛苦,二者的對比相當驚人。根據交易數據分析業者M Science的數據,近幾周在餐廳消費的金額約比一年前下滑35%,外送服務的營收卻成長約140%。

At the heart of the issues is some basic math. For the typical restaurant, fixed costs such as labor, food and rent eat up around 90% of the money coming in. That leaves little room for the base fees that the large delivery services charge small restaurants, which generally are 20% to 30% of what customers pay for each order.

問題核心是一些很基本的數學問題。對一般餐廳來說,人事、食材與租金等固定成本占掉營收90%左右。這樣一來,小餐廳承受大型外送服務業者所收基本費的空間所剩無幾,這些基本費用通常是顧客每筆訂單支付金額的20%到30%。

Restaurant owners are concerned about more than the apps’ fees. In 18 interviews with restaurant owners and industry consultants, plus in lawsuits and social media posts, many said Grubhub, DoorDash and Uber Eats also engaged in deceptive practices like setting up websites with inaccurate information for the restaurants, all without asking permission.

餐廳老闆們擔心的不只有這些應用程式的費用。在對餐廳老闆與產業顧問的18次專訪中,加上訴訟和社交媒體中的貼文,許多人表示,Grubhub、DoorDash和Uber Eats還從事欺騙性的行為,像是為餐廳建立資訊不準確的網站,而這些行為均未經餐廳許可。

Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/354557/web/

 
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每日英語跟讀 Ep.889: About USA - 嬌生將停止販售皮膚美白乳液與1944年暴動

每日英語跟讀 Ep.889: About USA - 嬌生將停止販售皮膚美白乳液與1944年暴動

July 6, 2020

每日英語跟讀 Ep.889: About USA - Johnson & Johnson Will Stop Selling Skin-Whitening Lotions

The consumer-products giant Johnson & Johnson said on Friday that it would no longer sell certain products that are advertised as dark-spot reducers but have been used by some purchasers to lighten skin tone.

消費品大廠嬌生週五表示,該公司不會再生產標榜可減少黑斑,卻常被購買者用於提亮皮膚色調的某些產品。

"Conversations over the past few weeks highlighted that some product names or claims on our Neutrogena and Clean & Clear dark-spot reducer products represent fairness or white as better than your own unique skin tone," the company said in a statement. "This was never our intention — healthy skin is beautiful skin."

「在過去幾週的對話,凸顯我們『露得清』部分產品的名稱或主張,與『可伶可俐』淡化黑斑產品,傳遞了潔白或白色比你原本獨特的皮膚色調更好的意涵」,這家公司透過聲明說。「這從來不是我們的意圖,健康膚色就是美麗的膚色」。

Last week, Band-Aid, which is owned by Johnson & Johnson, announced it would start selling bandages meant to match different skin tones.

上週,嬌生擁有的邦迪公司宣布將開始販售符合不同皮膚色調的繃帶。

"We are committed to launching a range of bandages in light, medium and deep shades of Brown and Black skin tones that embrace the beauty of diverse skin. We are dedicated to inclusivity and providing the best healing solutions, better representing you," Band-Aid said in an Instagram post.

「我們致力於推出範圍包含淺、中、深棕色與黑色的繃帶,擁抱多元膚色的美。我們盡力做到擁有包容性,與提供最好的治療方式,更好地代表你」,邦迪在Instagram貼文中說。

Next Article

Eight black transit workers got promoted. Thousands of white workers walked off the job 8名運輸業黑人勞工升職,數千名白人勞工罷工

World War II labor shortages had stretched the Philadelphia Transportation Co. to the limit by July 1944, and so the company decided it had no choice if the city’s buses, trolleys and subway were to keep running:It promoted eight black men to positions previously reserved for whites.

到了1944年7月,(美國賓州)費城運輸公司已經被二次世界大戰所導致的缺工逼到極限,該公司因而決定,若要讓該市的公車、電車與地下鐵持續運行,就得拔擢8名黑人男性出任原本保留給白人的職位,此外別無選擇。

The racial fallout brought the city to a tense halt. A worker insurrection slowed production of critical supplies for troops overseas and prompted an Army employee to attack one of the nation’s most prominent symbols of freedom:the Liberty Bell.

此舉的種族歧視後果導致費城在緊張中停擺。工人暴動延宕重要的海外部隊補給品生產,並促使一名陸軍雇員攻擊美國最重要的自由象徵之一:費城自由鐘。

The events made for a "new and different Philadelphia Story," two National Urban League officials wrote at the time — a story with particular resonance more than 75 years later as thousands protest systemic racism and police brutality in the wake of George Floyd’s death in police custody.

(倡導非裔民權的非營利組織)「全國城市聯盟」的兩名官員當時曾如此寫道:「這些事件造就一個『新穎與不一樣的費城故事』」——一個在超過75年後讓人特別有共鳴、遭警察拘留的喬治.佛洛伊德死後有數千人抗議有系統的種族歧視與警察殘暴的故事。

Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1383741 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1383204

 
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