通勤學英語
每日跟讀#706: Weightlifter’s temporary vision loss due to Valsalva phenomenon

每日跟讀#706: Weightlifter’s temporary vision loss due to Valsalva phenomenon

October 23, 2019

每日跟讀#706: Weightlifter’s temporary vision loss due to Valsalva phenomenon

 

A 30-year-old man in Nantou County was in the gym recently and suddenly started experiencing lightheadednness and temporary vision loss. After leaning against a wall and resting for a while he started feeling better, but the experience scared him, and he went to the hospital.

 

南投縣三十歲男子,日前健身時竟出現頭暈、眼前一片黑等不適症狀,待靠牆休息才緩解不適,嚇得趕緊就醫。

 

According to the Ministry of Health and Welfare’s Nantou Hospital, the problem was most likely caused by the Valsalva phenomenon, leading to a sudden drop in his blood pressure; in these circumstances there is no need to seek medical treatment, and the symptoms should improve after a little rest. The hospital added that people doing weight training should not push themselves too much.

 
 

衛福部南投醫院表示,他很有可能是「努責現象」導致血壓急速下降所致,有類似情況無需治療,休息即可改善,提醒民眾健身應循序漸進。

 

Many people, when exerting themselves physically, can develop headaches or feel faint, due to insufficient blood circulation and lack of oxygen being delivered to the brain as a result of low blood pressure. There have been instances in the past of people lifting weights suddenly fainting and falling backwards.

 

許多民眾在用力時,會發生頭痛或昏厥的情形,係因低血壓造成血液灌流不足、腦部缺氧所致,曾經也發生過民眾在舉重時,突然昏厥後倒的情形。

 

Activities such as weight training, lifting heavy objects, straining on the toilet, coughing, vomiting and sneezing that involve holding one’s breath can all lead to the symptoms observed when doing the “Valsalva maneuver,” such as temporary dizziness, headaches, heart palpitations and even temporary feeling of wanting to faint.

 

做重量訓練、搬重物、用力解便、咳嗽、嘔吐、打噴嚏等出現用力憋氣時,就可能引發「努責現象」,會出現短暫頭暈、頭痛、心悸,甚至短暫暈厥。

 

This is due to loss of blood circulation in the brain or other parts of the body caused by low blood pressure, leading to a lack of oxygen to the brain. If people start to see stars or feel dizzy — both symptoms of the Valsalva phenomenon — during exercise or weight training, they should take a rest and try to breathe regularly, and they should recover in one or two minutes. If the symptoms persist, they should seek medical attention.

 

這是因低血壓造成腦部或身體其他部位血液灌流不足、腦部缺氧所致,提醒民眾若運動中或重訓過度出現眼冒金星、暈眩等努責現象時,就應暫停並休息,盡量保持規律呼吸,約一到兩分鐘即可恢復,若仍持續不適,則應就醫治療。

 

Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2019/10/07/2003723485

 

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每日跟讀#705: About Japan - Sightseeing train turns ’problem’ Kyoto line into talk of the town

每日跟讀#705: About Japan - Sightseeing train turns ’problem’ Kyoto line into talk of the town

October 22, 2019

每日跟讀#705: About Japan - Sightseeing train turns ’problem’ Kyoto line into talk of the town

 
 

A railway here in Miyazu, Kyoto Prefecture once on the verge of being defunct has a new lease on life with its slow-moving sightseeing train featuring a cafe-like interior.

 

(日本)京都府宮津一條曾瀕臨廢線的鐵路,憑藉內部裝潢有如咖啡館的觀光慢車,得以續命綿延。

 

The Tango Aka-Matsu is operated by Kyoto Tango Railway (Tantetsu), whose lines were famously dubbed the symbol of unprofitable train routes in the Heisei Era, which started in 1989.

 

京都丹後鐵道(簡稱丹鐵)負責營運的「丹後赤松號」觀光列車所行駛的路線,被稱為是始於1989年平成時代的知名不賺錢路線的象徵。

 

The train, which connects Nishi-Maizuru and Amanohashidate stations, runs at reduced speeds offering scenic views.

 

這列連接西舞鶴站與天橋立站的觀光列車,以較慢速度行駛,好讓乘客能夠欣賞美景。

 

Passengers let out cries of delight on a weekend in December as the fully occupied 33-seat train approached Yuragawa Kyoryo bridge over the Yuragawa river.

 

去年12月的某個週末,當33個座位都坐滿的觀光列車駛向跨越由良川的由良川橋時,車上乘客一陣驚呼。

 

"It’s amazing. It’s like we are on the sea," one passenger said.

 

「太棒了。我們好像在海上,」一名乘客如是說。

 

The 550-meter-long bridge is only a few meters above the river, making passengers feel as if the train is traveling on the water.

 

這座550公尺長的鐵道橋,只比河面高幾公尺,讓乘客覺得火車彷彿行駛在水面上。

 

Next Article:

 
 

Japan convenience store apologizes after viral rodent video 日本便利商店在老鼠影片瘋傳後道歉

 

Japanese convenience store chain FamilyMart apologized after video went viral on social media of rats scurrying about one of its stores in Tokyo’s popular Shibuya district, prompting it to close the outlet until further notice.

 

日本連鎖便利商店「全家」在東京高人氣澀谷區其中一家分店老鼠亂竄影片於社群媒體瘋傳後道歉,此事導致該分店關閉,直至進一步通知。

 

Video clips posted on YouTube and Twitter appeared to show at least six of the long-tailed rodents, with some descending from refrigerated display racks stocked with "onigiri" rice balls and bento meals before scampering down an aisle.

 

放上YouTube及推特的影片片段似乎顯示,這種長尾齧齒動物至少有6隻,其中幾隻驚慌地沿著一處走道跑掉以前,從放有飯糰和便當的冷藏展示架往下爬。

 

Public broadcaster NHK said it had been viewed more than 5 million times.

 

公共媒體「日本廣播協會」表示,影片的點閱次數破500萬。

 

"We take this case seriously," the company statement said, noting that it had suspended business at the outlet since Monday while it investigates the cause.

 

該公司聲明表示,「我們嚴肅看待此案」,並說週一起已讓該分店停止營業,同時調查原因。

 

FamilyMart will take disinfection and prevention measures and decide whether to reopen the store taking into consideration the surrounding environment.

 

全家便利商店將採取消毒與預防措施,並考量周邊環境,決定是否讓這家店重新開張。

 

Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1322516 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1323939

 

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每日跟讀#704: United We Stan: How the Internet Merged Pop Culture and Politics

每日跟讀#704: United We Stan: How the Internet Merged Pop Culture and Politics

October 21, 2019

每日跟讀#704: United We Stan: How the Internet Merged Pop Culture and Politics

 

Whatever persona Elizabeth Warren hopes to project in her presidential campaign, it is probably not that of a child witch. But that is the persona that some of her biggest fans have chosen for her.

 

雖不知華倫希望在競選總統時以何種形象出現,但大概不會是巫童,然而這正是她的一些鐵粉為她選擇的人物形象。

 

Images of Hermione Granger, played in the “Harry Potter” films by a young Emma Watson, materialize at Warren’s every move. Warren steps onto the debate stage, and her fans craft tweets where Hermione stands in as her, rolling her eyes at the boys in wizarding class. Warren reads the whole Mueller report, and Hermione smugly wags her wand. In one extremely cursed tweet with zero likes, Warren’s face is transplanted onto Hermione’s frame, posed alongside Beto O’Rourke as Harry and Pete Buttigieg as Ron Weasley.

 

《哈利波特》電影中由年輕的艾瑪.華森所飾演的妙麗的人物形象,被落實在華倫的一舉一動中。華倫走上辯論會舞台時,她的粉絲們將妙麗對魔法課上男孩翻白眼的照片製作成一則推文,妙麗成了她的化身。華倫展讀穆勒的整份報告時,妙麗得意地搖著魔仗。在一則被罵到翻、沒人按讚的推文中,華倫的臉被安到妙麗的身體上,並跟歐洛克扮演的哈利,以及布塔朱吉扮演的榮恩一起擺姿勢。

 

What is this strange chimera of presidential campaigning: a candidate’s head on pop culture’s body? It is the product of a great convergence between politics and culture, citizenship and commerce, ideology and aesthetics. Civic participation has been converted seamlessly into consumer practice. It is democracy reimagined as fandom, and it is now a dominant mode of experiencing politics.

 

候選人的頭配上流行文化的身體,這是總統選戰中什麼樣的奇怪幻象?它是政治與文化、公民與商業、意識形態與美學的巨大融合的產物。公民參與已經無縫接軌轉化為消費行為。它是個被重新想像成粉絲圈的民主,且現在正是體驗政治的一種主流模式。

 

You can see it in the efforts to sort the candidates into “Harry Potter” houses, converting the election to a personality quiz in a children’s book, and in the mashup video that distills the 2020 candidates into quotes from Michael Scott, the buffoonish boss of “The Office.”

 

在試圖把候選人分類成《哈利波特》家族人物,將選舉轉化成童書中的人格測驗、以及把2020年候選人發言變成《我們的辦公室》影集滑稽老闆麥可.史考特名言的混搭影片等行動中,都能看出這一點。

 

A photograph of three congresswomen of color is published and instantly compared to a Whitney Houston GIF, as if women interrogating Michael Cohen are analogous to Houston confronting her cheating boyfriend. Politicos of all stripes are styled as saints and stamped onto novelty devotional prayer candles.

 

一張三名有色人種國會女議員的照片被公佈後,立即被跟惠妮·休斯頓的照片相提並論,彷彿審問柯恩的女性就如同質問不忠男友的休斯頓,各種政治人物都被描繪成聖徒,印在新奇的祈禱蠟燭上。

 

Here, political engagement slips easily into the habits of consumption. President Donald Trump’s fans follow him around the country like groupies, and House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s boosters fetishize her funnel-neck coat as a symbol of the #resistance.

 

在這一點上,政治參與很容易不知不覺變成消費習慣。川普總統的粉絲們像追星族一樣跟著他走遍全國,眾議院議長波洛西的支持者們則把她的漏斗領外套當作#抵抗運動的象徵。

 

Candidates’ supporters now identify as stans — a term derived from the 2000 Eminem song about a fan who becomes so obsessed, he kills.

 

候選人的支持者現在以stans自居,而這個詞源自阿姆2000年的歌曲,講述一位變得太痴狂、他所害死的粉絲。

 

Political stanning has a way of remapping the landscape of mainstream politics — maybe even overwriting physical reality itself. Frantic online cultural production swarms around Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg whenever she experiences a health scare, as if memes alone could sustain the octogenarian’s life.

 

政治上的瘋狂迷戀往往能重繪主流政治的樣貌,甚至可能掩蓋現實世界本身。每當大法官茹絲.貝德.金斯伯格經歷一場健康恐慌時,瘋狂的網路文化產物便群起圍繞著她,彷彿只有迷因才能維持這位八旬老人的生命。

 

Trump’s fans imbue him with improbable prowess when they edit him into pro-wrestling videos showing him smacking down CNN. But perhaps the most explicit riff on the trend was the infamous Beto O’Rourke sex tweet, which translated his political positions into sexual ones.

 

當川普粉絲將他編輯進職業摔角影片,顯示他擊倒CNN時,給他注入了不可思議的力量。而歐洛克臭名昭彰的性推文,則可能是對此一趨勢最明顯的嘲諷,因它將他的政治立場轉變成了性別立場。

 

Source article: https://paper.udn.com/udnpaper/POH0067/345410/web/

 

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每日跟讀#703: Scientists identify ancient baby bottles …and some are really cute

每日跟讀#703: Scientists identify ancient baby bottles …and some are really cute

October 20, 2019

每日跟讀#703: Scientists identify ancient baby bottles ...and some are really cute

 

Ceramic vessels, sometimes fashioned in whimsical animal forms, were used thousands of years ago as baby bottles to feed infants animal milk, according to scientists, offering an intriguing look at how and what infants were fed in prehistoric times.

 

科學家指出,數千年前的人類有時會把陶製容器塑造成異想天開的動物形狀,將它們作為奶瓶使用,餵嬰兒喝動物的乳汁。這項發現提供一個有趣的觀點,讓人一窺史前時代人類如何、又是用什麼來餵食嬰兒。

 

Archaeologists said on Sept. 25 they confirmed the function of these ceramic objects by finding chemical traces of milk belonging to animals such as cows, sheep and goats in three such items found buried in child graves in Germany.

 

考古學家在九月二十五日表示,他們在埋入德國兒童墳墓裡面的三個同類型物件中,發現殘留動物乳汁的化學痕跡──包括母牛、綿羊、山羊等──因此確認了這些陶製物品的用途。

 

The oldest of the three vessels described in the study was made between 2,800 and 3,200 years ago during the Bronze Age. Other similar objects dating back as far as about 7,000 years ago during Neolithic times have been found in various other locations, the researchers said.

 

在研究描述的三個容器中,年代最早的製造於兩千八百年前到三千兩百年前的青銅器時代。研究人員指出,其他許多地點都曾經發現類似的物件,最遠可追溯到大約七千年前的新石器時期。

 

“I think this has provided us the first direct evidence of what foods babies were eating or being weaned on in prehistory,” said biomolecular archaeologist Julie Dunne of the University of Bristol in the UK and lead author of the study, published in the journal Nature. “I think this shows us the love and care these prehistoric people had for their babies.”

 

該篇研究發表於期刊《自然》,主要作者為英國布里斯托大學的生物分子考古學家茱莉‧鄧恩,她表示:「我認為這項發現提供第一手直接證據,顯示史前時代的小寶寶吃什麼食物,或是用什麼食物斷奶。」她也指出:「我想,這項發現也向我們展現這些史前時代人類對小嬰兒的愛與關懷。」

 

These objects, little enough to fit into a baby’s hands, served as vessels for milk, with a narrow spout for the baby to suckle liquid. While the three objects examined for the study were somewhat plain, others boasted lively shapes including animal heads with long ears or horns and human-looking feet.

 

這些物件小到能夠放進嬰兒的小手中,是用來盛裝奶水的容器,瓶身上附有一個狹長的壺嘴,讓小寶寶能夠從中吸吮液體。雖然研究檢驗用的三個物件外觀稍嫌平淡無奇,但其他同類陶器形狀卻相當生動,有著動物的頭,附著長長的耳朵或是犄角,以及像人類的腳。

 

“I find them incredibly cute. And prehistoric people may have thought so, too — they would certainly have a dual function of entertaining the children just like modern stuffed animals,” said archaeologist Katharina Rebay-Salisbury of the Austrian Academy of Sciences’ Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology, and a co-author of the study. “They testify to the creativity and playfulness we often forget to attribute to our ancestors,” Rebay-Salisbury added.

 

研究的共同作者、奧地利科學院東方與歐洲考古研究所的考古學家凱瑟琳娜‧雷貝─索爾斯伯里表示:「我覺得這些陶器難以置信地可愛。而且搞不好史前的人們也是這樣覺得──這些陶器很可能還具備另一項娛樂小孩的雙重功能,就像是現代的填充玩具。」她補充說:「這些陶器證實老祖先們具備的創意和愛開玩笑的個性,那都是我們經常忘記的。」

 

Life at the time was not easy, Rebay-Salisbury added, with many people living in unhygienic conditions, experiencing famine and disease and facing low life expectancy. During the Bronze Age and subsequent Iron Age in Europe, perhaps about a third of all newborns died before their first birthday and only about half of children reached adulthood, Rebay-Salisbury said.

 

雷貝─索爾斯伯里還指出,當時的生活並不容易,原因在於許多人都居住在不衛生的環境中、遭受饑荒與疾病,還要面臨很短的預期壽命。她表示,在青銅器時代以及接下來的鐵器時代,歐洲地區可能有大約三分之一的新生兒在一歲之前死亡,而且大概只有一半的小孩能夠順利長大成人。

 

These feeding vessels may have made life easier for mothers, as animal milk could substitute for breastfeeding, the researchers said. “Duties of mothering — amongst which feeding is an important one — can also be undertaken by other members of the community when children are fed with feeding vessels,” Rebay-Salisbury said.

 

研究人員表示,這些餵食用的容器會讓母親們的生活輕鬆一些,因為動物的乳汁可以代替親餵母乳。雷貝─索爾斯伯里指出:「當小孩可以用器具餵食的時候,為人母的諸多責任──其中,最重要的一項是餵食嬰兒──也就可以由部落的其他成員接手幫忙。」

 

Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2019/10/06/2003723440

 
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文法跟讀 In-Tense #025: Much - Uncountable Nouns

文法跟讀 In-Tense #025: Much - Uncountable Nouns

October 19, 2019
 

Welcome to 15mins.today the home of English Shadowing. I'm your host Gavin and this is InTense Episode 25.

 
 

So now guys, in Episode 23 we looked at “a lot of” and Episode 24 we looked at “many” countable nouns. So of course today we're going to look at uncountable nouns and “much.” Now the one thing we use “much” for a lot and that is the question, “How much is it?” ,what is the cost? “How much do I have to pay?” So when it comes to that, there's no way we can change that to “a lot of” because that is the standard question, “How much is it?”

 
 

Now it is very tricky to do uncountable nouns because you have to learn them, that's all. That's the only way to know which nouns are uncountable, you have to study them. The only shortcut I can offer would be that there is sort of a cheating rule that says if you can say “one chair, two chairs” that is countable.

 
 

If you say “one water, two water” you cannot, so that's uncountable. So for uncountable nouns you have basically groups that you could say that are usually uncountable like, liquids> milk and water, abstract ideas> advice chaos motivation, powder and grains> rice, wheat, sand, mass nouns> furniture hair transportation, natural phenomena> sunshine snow rain weather. “The weather is nice today.” States of being> sleep stress childhood, feelings> anger happiness enthusiasm courage and then gas> oxygen air.

 
 

Now that is sort of a rough idea which things can be used for uncountable nouns. If you really want to know, I suggest you go onto Google and search> “list of uncountable nouns PDF” and they will give you a list, I saw one list with 450 nouns for uncountable nouns. So that said, let's get started with our questions, number one.

 
 

Drill Sentences:

 
 

Did Jane drink much milk? Yes, she drank much milk.

Did Jane drink much milk? No, she did not drink much milk.

 

Did you spend much money? Yes, I spent much money.

Did you spend much money? No, I did not spend much money.

 

Do you have much love for cats? Yes, I have much love for cats.

Do you have much love for cats? No, I do not have much love for cats.

 

Does Peter eat much rice? Yes, he eats much rice.

Does Peter eat much rice? No, he does not eat much rice.

 

Do you get much sleep? Yes, I get much sleep.

Do you get much sleep? No, I do not get much sleep.

 

Do John and Jane show much anger? Yes, they show much anger.

Do John and Jane show much anger? No, they do not show much anger.

 

Do you enjoy much sunshine? Yes, I enjoy much sunshine.

Do you enjoy much sunshine? No, I do not enjoy much sunshine.

 

Did Peter give much advice? Yes, he gave much advice.

Did Peter give much advice? No, he did not give much advice.

 

Does Anna have much furniture? Yes, she has much furniture.

Does Anna have much furniture? No, she does not have much furniture.

 

Does your country get much rain? Yes, my country gets much rain.

Does your country get much rain? No, my country does not get much rain.

 

Well guys that that is it, keep practicing. It is a very awkward thing for me, even I feel myself wanting to say “a lot of” because it's just simpler, it makes life a bit easier and some of these questions seem a bit strange to ask somebody. Maybe I wouldn't phrase them in that exact order but it is for practice purposes only. So keep repeating and good luck and catch you next time, bye!

 

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精選詞彙 Vocab #031: Runner creates artwork with Strava running app

精選詞彙 Vocab #031: Runner creates artwork with Strava running app

October 18, 2019

Summary:

 
 

Lenny Maugham, a avid runner in San Francisco decided to turn his running routes into artwork. Instead of running scenic routes of San Francisco, he would plan his route like a Batman logo, shape of a heart, and starship enterprise. So far he has made a total of 53 works, making him a running artist. His Frida Kahoolawe artwork is a 46.5km run that took him 6 hours and 8 minutes to complete.

 

Vocabulary and Sample Sentences:

 

Scenic adj – dealing to view of beautiful natural scenery

 
  • Lenny got tired of just running around the scenic spots of San Francisco.
 
  • People go up to the Taipei 101 tower to enjoy the scenic view of the city.
 

Route n. – way or course taken from a starting point to a destination.

 
  • Peter’s newspaper route included Zhongxiao E. Road and Xinyi road.
 
 
  • By not taking the expressway to Yilan, we are actually taking the long route.
 

Track n. / v. – a path or road / follow the trail or movement of someone or something.

 
  • Michael Schumacher raced down the track at 300km/h.
 
  • I can use my laptop to track my phone.

 

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每日跟讀#702: About Japan - Japan has so many vacant homes it’s giving them away

每日跟讀#702: About Japan - Japan has so many vacant homes it’s giving them away

October 17, 2019

每日跟讀#701: About Japan - Japan has so many vacant homes it’s giving them away

 

Four years ago, Naoko and Takayuki Ida were given a house in the small town of Okutama, in Tokyo prefecture. For free.

 

4年前,井田直子與孝之得到一棟位於東京都小鎮奧多摩的房子。不用錢。

 

A free house may sound like a scam. But Japan faces an unusual property problem: it has more homes than people to live in them.

 

免費的房子聽起來像是騙局。但日本正面臨一項不尋常的房地產問題:房屋數量多於入住人數。

 

In 2013, there were 61 million houses and 52 million households, according to the Japan Policy Forum. And the situation is poised to get worse.

 

「日本政策論壇」指出,2013年時有6100萬間房子與5200萬戶家庭。而且,這種情況還會日益惡化。

 

Japan’s population is expected to decline from 127 million to about 88 million by 2065, according to the National Institute of Population and Social Security, meaning even fewer people will need houses. As young people leave rural areas for city jobs, Japan’s countryside has become haunted by deserted "ghost houses."

 

根據(日本)「國立社會保障、人口問題研究所」,預料日本人口到了2065年,會從1億2700萬減至約8800萬,意味需要房屋的人會更少。隨著年輕人為了在都市工作離開鄉間,日本鄉間已充斥遭棄置的「鬼屋」。

 

It’s predicted that by 2040, nearly 900 towns and villages across Japan will no longer exist - and Okutama is one of them. In that context, giving away property is a bid for survival.

 

預料到了2040年,全日本將近900座小鎮與村莊將不復存在—奧多摩便是其中之一。在此情況下,贈送房地產便成為一種求生之道。

 

Next Article:

 

Struggling farming school in Hokkaido revived by its lamb products/苦撐辦學的北海道農校靠羊肉產品起死回生

 

An agricultural high school in Japan’s northern prefecture of Hokkaido - its survival once at stake due to a shortage of students - has bounced back by earning fame through the delicious lamb produced by its students.

 

一度因招生不足以致生存岌岌可危的一所位於日本北方省份北海道的農業高中,已憑藉該校學生製作的可口羊肉製品打響名聲,進而逆勢反彈。

 

The Embetsu agricultural high school, the sole high school in the town of Embetsu in northern Hokkaido, has about 60 students and owns around 25 hectares of land used. It keeps around 20 to 40 Suffolk sheep, a breed from Britain, with students mainly handling the breeding of animals and processing of meat.

 

北海道北部遠別町唯一一所高中遠別農業高等學校,有約60名學生與擁有約25公頃的土地。該校養了20到40頭英國品種的薩福克羊,養育動物與肉品加工主要由學生們一手包辦。

 

At school events, it has sold meat processed into lamb slices, ground lamb and sausage. But it had been struggling due to the declining number of incoming students, leading authorities to consider whether they should close the school.

 

該校在舉辦校園活動時會販售加工為羊排、羊絞肉與羊香腸的肉製品。但該校過去曾招生不足而苦撐,當局甚至考慮是否要廢校。

 

The turning point came about four years ago, when the town began sending the school’s lamb products as one of the return gifts to people who donated money to the municipality under the country’s so-called hometown tax donation scheme.

 

轉捩點出現在約4年前,該校所在的遠別町根據日本的所謂「故鄉納稅」制度,開始把該校的羊肉製品當成送給捐款給遠別町的民眾的回禮之一。

 
 

 

Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1314285 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1315959

 

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每日跟讀#701: About Africa - Mysterious Mineral from Earth’s Mantle Discovered in South African Diamond

每日跟讀#701: About Africa - Mysterious Mineral from Earth’s Mantle Discovered in South African Diamond

October 16, 2019

每日跟讀#701: About Africa - Mysterious Mineral from Earth’s Mantle Discovered in South African Diamond

 

A single grain of rock lodged in a diamond contains a never-before-found mineral. And that newfound substance could reveal unusual chemical reactions unfolding in the depths of the mantle, the layer of Earth that lies between the planet’s crust and outer core. The entire mantle is about 1,802 miles (2,900 km) thick.

 

包裹在一塊鑽石內的小晶粒,含有一種此前從未在鑽石內發現的礦物。這項新發現有望揭示地函深處發生的不尋常化學反應,地球地函位在行星地殼與外地核之間。地球地函的總厚度約1802英里(2900公里)。

 

Scientists unearthed the mineral from a volcanic site in South Africa known as the Koffiefontein pipe. Shining diamonds speckle the dark, igneous rock that lines the pipe, and the diamonds themselves contain tiny bits of other minerals from hundreds of miles beneath Earth’s surface. Within one of these sparkling stones, scientists found a dark green, opaque mineral that they estimated was forged about 105 miles (170 kilometers) underground.

 

科學家從南非一處名為「科菲芬丹火山管」的火山區挖出這種礦物。閃閃發亮的鑽石散布在火山管內暗色的火成岩之中,鑽石本身則含有其他來自地表下數百英里的微小礦物。在其中一塊閃亮的石頭內,科學家發現一種暗綠色、不透明的礦物,他們估計這種礦物生成在地底下105英里(170公里)處。

 

Scientists noted that, for a mantle mineral, goldschmidtite has a peculiar chemical composition.

 

科學家指出,對地函礦物而言,「針銀碲金礦」具有獨特的化學組成。

 

Next Article:

 

Kenyans rush to swap banknotes as cash ban looms 鈔票禁令在即,肯亞人搶著換鈔

 

A man walked into a Nairobi car yard and paid for a luxury Mercedes with a mountain of 1,000 shilling ($9 euros) banknotes, desperate to offload cash that would be worthless after September 30.

 

一名男子走進奈洛比市一家汽車展示場,拿出大量1000肯亞先令紙鈔(約9歐元),買下一台豪華賓士轎車,急著將9月30日後就一文不值的現金脫手。

 

With the deadline looming before the Central Bank of Kenya bans all old edition 1,000 shilling notes, big fish with their fortunes stashed in cash are under pressure.

 

隨著肯亞中央銀行禁止所有舊版千元先令流通的日期逼近,握有大筆現金的大人物備感壓力。

 

A new print of the 1,000 shilling banknote, the largest denomination, was rolled out in June. The operation is aimed at flushing out dirty money being hoarded by tax evaders, crooked businessmen and criminal groups. The central bank in June said there were roughly 218 million 1,000 shilling notes in circulation.

 

最大面額1000先令的新版紙鈔在六月推出,這項行動旨在迫使逃稅者、奸商和犯罪集團,釋出積存的來歷不明財富。肯亞央行六月表示,約有2.18億張千元先令在市面流通。

 

People are getting creative, devising schemes to quickly unload small amounts of their cash. For example, a liquor shop owner gets 500,000 shillings every day to bank together with his daily sales, as a deal with a wealthy guy, and get between five and 10 percent in return.

 

人們開始想方設法,擬定可以迅速脫手小額現金的方法。例如,一名酒商和有錢人達成協議,每天幫對方將50萬先令,連同自家營業額存進銀行,藉此收取5%到10%的回饋。

 

Source article: https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1322040 ; https://features.ltn.com.tw/english/article/paper/1321332

 

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每日跟讀#700: Taiwan’s first domestically produced electric self-driving minibus

每日跟讀#700: Taiwan’s first domestically produced electric self-driving minibus

October 15, 2019

每日跟讀#700: Taiwan’s first domestically produced electric self-driving minibus

 

At a cost of NT$30 million (approx. US$966,000), Taiwan’s first domestically developed self-driving electric bus, Winbus, took to the road on Sept. 24 at a demonstration event at Changhua Coastal Industrial Park in the county’s Lukang Township. Deputy Minister of Economic Affairs Wang Mei-hua, Changhua County Commissioner Wang Hui-mei and several other guests were given a preview ride in the Winbus, traveling at 30km per hour along roads in Lukang. During the demonstration, the vehicle simulated stopping for pedestrians and at traffic lights. At the event the deputy minister also signed a memorandum of understanding with Winbus’ developers to begin operating the self-driving vehicle on public roads within Lukang by the end of the year. Everyone hoped this would provide a boost to local industry.

 

耗資三千萬元全台第一輛由國內自行研發製造的自駕電動小巴士Winbus,九月二十四日在彰化縣鹿港鎮彰濱工業區舉辦體驗會,由經濟部次長王美花、彰化縣長王惠美等人先行搭乘體驗,在鹿港街道以時速三十公里行駛,模擬遇到行人時煞車、紅燈時停車等路況都相當順利,並共同簽署合作備忘錄,全力推動自駕車於今年底前在鹿港區實路運行,帶動地方產業發展。

 

The intention is for Winbus to operate on public roads within the bustling streets of tourist hotspots. Prior to the Winbus officially coming into service, deputy minister and the county commissioner, together with Automotive Research & Testing Center president Liao Ching-chiu and several other guests, boarded the sleekly-designed “smart bus,” loaded with futuristic technology, for a 4.4km journey from the testing center to the Taiwan Glass Gallery. En route, the Winbus successfully navigated a T-junction without traffic lights, identified and gave way to pedestrians, changed from the slow to the fast lane, applied the brakes in a controlled manner for vehicles in front, crossed traffic light junctions and turned left at an intersection before arriving at its destination.

 

Winbus未來將會在熙來攘往的觀光地區實際道路上運行,因此在正式營運前,當日先行開放讓外界體驗這輛外型美感及先進科技系統兼具的智慧交通新工具,由王美花、王惠美與車輛研究測試中心總經理廖慶秋等人搭乘,從車測中心出發到四點四公里遠的台灣玻璃館,途經無號誌T字路口與遇到行人時主動辨識並採取適應性煞車動作,以及快車道切入慢車道右轉、直行遇前車緩煞停、紅綠燈號誌、十字路口左轉、到站停車等實際路況,Winbus也都能夠順利運作。

 

Speaking to reporters, Wang Hui-mei said Changhua County Government will fully cooperate with the central government and businesses to enable the project to be expanded throughout the county, perhaps extending the system nationwide and even entering into international markets. Liao said the exterior modeling of the Winbus was carried out by Taiwanese designers and claimed that its capabilities outstrip that of any similar-sized self-driving minibuses currently in operation around the world, adding that Winbus heralds the achievement of a new milestone in “smart transportation.”

 

王惠美表示,後續縣府將全力配合中央及業者,讓這項計畫拓展到彰化縣甚至是全國,並將這項產業跨足到國際市場。廖慶秋說,Winbus造型由國內自行設計,性能已超越國外運行的自駕小巴,宣告台灣的智慧交通進入新的里程碑。

 

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每日跟讀#699: Water found in atmosphere of planet beyond our solar system

每日跟讀#699: Water found in atmosphere of planet beyond our solar system

October 14, 2019

每日跟讀#699: Water found in atmosphere of planet beyond our solar system

 

Scientists for the first time have detected water in the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet orbiting a distant star, evidence that a key ingredient for life exists beyond our solar system, according to a study published on Wednesday.

 

根據週三發表的一份研究指出,科學家首次在某顆行星的大氣層中偵測到水的存在,該星體與地球相似,不過它環繞的恆星距離相當遙遠。這項發現證明,生命的關鍵要素也存在於太陽系之外。

 

Water vapor was found in the atmosphere of K2-18b, one of hundreds of “super-Earths” — worlds ranging in size between Earth and Neptune — documented in a growing new field of astronomy devoted to the exploration of so-called exoplanets elsewhere in the Milky Way galaxy. More than 4,000 exoplanets of all types and sizes have been detected overall.

 

科學家在「K2-18b」的大氣層中發現水汽,這顆行星是數百顆「超級地球」──大小介於地球和海王星之間的星體──的其中之一,記錄在持續成長的天文學新領域中。該領域研究致力於探索我們銀河系內其他星系的「太陽系外行星」。目前,科學家已偵測到超過四千顆不同類型和大小的太陽系外行星。

 

The latest discovery was reported in research by a team of scientists at University College London (UCL) published in the peer-reviewed journal Nature Astronomy. “We found water,” UCL astrophysicist Ingo Waldmann told Reuters of the breakthrough, revealed from observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope, which analyzed starlight filtered through K2-18b’s atmosphere.

 
 

 

這項最新發現來自倫敦大學學院一組科學家團隊的研究,並發表在經過同儕審查的期刊《自然‧天文學》上。倫敦大學學院的天體物理學家印哥‧瓦爾德曼向路透表示:「我們發現水了」,並說明這項突破來自於哈伯太空望遠鏡的觀察,分析星光經過「K2-18b」大氣層過濾後的變化。

 

More precisely, it marks the first time scientists have found water in the atmosphere around a super-Earth — as opposed to a gas giant — orbiting a star within its “ habitable zone,” just the right distance for liquid water to potentially exist on the surface.

 

更精確地說,這是科學家首次在恆星「適居帶」內運行的超級地球──而非氣體巨行星──其大氣層中發現水。「適居帶」與恆星的距離剛好能讓液態水有可能存在於行星表面。

 

Angelos Tsiaras, an astronomer at UCL, said the team is focusing its attention on identifying exoplanets with conditions similar to those on Earth. “But of course this is not in order to find a place where we could go. This is still science fiction,” Tsiaras said, noting that K2-18b orbits a dwarf star in the constellation Leo that lies 100 light years from Earth.

 

倫敦大學學院的天文學家安傑洛斯‧齊阿拉斯表示,研究團隊正聚焦於辨認環境與地球表面相似的太陽系外行星。齊阿拉斯說:「但當然,這不是為了尋找我們可以前往的地方。目前這種事情仍然只會出現在科幻小說中。」他也提到,「K2-18b」位於獅子座中,繞著一顆白矮星運行,距離地球一百光年。

 
 
 

While light from the sun takes several minutes to reach Earth, light from K2-18b’s star takes a century to reach our planet, “so for us to travel there is impossible,” he said. “Given it’s so far away we don’t really have any other choice but stay on our own Earth, so it’s important to make Earth great again rather than looking for an alternative to go to,” Tsiaras said.

 

相對於太陽光只要花幾分鐘的時間就會抵達地球,「K2-18b」所繞行的恆星,其光線要花上一個世紀才會抵達我們的行星。齊阿拉斯說:「所以,對我們而言,前往那裡是不可能的。」他並進一步指出:「鑑於這顆行星實在太過遙遠,我們除了留在自己的地球上別無選擇。也因此,重要的是讓地球再度偉大,而不是找出另一個替代行星後飛向那邊。」

 

Aside from the tremendous distance separating Earth from K2-18b, the exoplanet is likely exposed to far more radiation than Earth, diminishing the prospects for life evolving there. However, the discovery brings astronomers closer to answering the fundamental question of how unique Earth is in the universe, the scientists said.

 
 

 

除了分隔地球和「K2-18b」行星的極大距離之外,這顆太陽系外行星可能曝露在遠高於地球接收的輻射線中,更加削弱生命在該地發展的前景。不過,科學家們表示,這項新發現,讓天文學家更加接近解答「地球在宇宙中有多獨特」的根本性問題。

 

Source article: http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/lang/archives/2019/09/15/2003722288

 

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